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  • Writer's pictureSemco Infratech

Working of a battery: How is the energy created?

Batteries are devices that store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy when needed. They are used in a wide range of applications, from powering small electronic devices to providing backup power for large buildings. In this article, we'll explore the workings of a battery and how energy is created within it.

Basic Components of a Battery

A battery consists of two electrodes, an electrolyte, and a separator. The electrodes are typically made of metal, such as zinc and copper, and are immersed in an electrolyte, which is usually a liquid or gel. The separator is a material that prevents the two electrodes from touching each other while allowing ions to pass through.

When the two electrodes are connected by a conductor, such as a wire, a chemical reaction occurs between the metal and the electrolyte. This reaction produces an electrical current that flows through the wire and can be used to power a device.

How Energy is Created

The basic principle behind how energy is created within a battery is the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy. This conversion is made possible by the electrochemical reactions that occur within the battery.

During the discharge process, the negative electrode (anode) loses electrons, while the positive electrode (cathode) gains electrons. This creates a flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode, which produces an electrical current. The electrolyte acts as a medium for the transfer of ions between the two electrodes.

The specific chemical reactions that occur within a battery depend on the materials used in the electrodes and electrolytes. In a common type of battery, the alkaline battery, the anode is made of zinc, and the cathode is made of manganese dioxide. The electrolyte is a potassium hydroxide solution.

When the battery is connected to a device, the zinc in the anode reacts with the hydroxide ions in the electrolyte to produce zinc oxide and electrons. At the same time, the manganese dioxide in the cathode reacts with the electrons to produce manganese oxide and hydroxide ions. The hydroxide ions then combine with the zinc oxide to form zincate ions, which return to the electrolyte to continue the reaction.

This chemical reaction continues until the zinc in the anode is completely consumed. At this point, the battery is considered to be "dead" and can no longer produce an electrical current.

Recharging a Battery

Batteries can be recharged by reversing the chemical reactions that occur during discharge. This is done by applying an external electrical current to the battery, which causes the flow of electrons to be reversed. As a result, the zinc oxide in the anode is converted back into zinc, while the manganese oxide in the cathode is converted back into manganese dioxide.

This process can be repeated several times, allowing the battery to be used again and again. However, over time, the materials in the electrodes and electrolytes can degrade, which can reduce the battery's capacity and lifespan.


Batteries are essential for powering a wide range of devices, from small electronics to large buildings. They work by converting chemical energy into electrical energy through electrochemical reactions. By understanding how batteries work, we can better appreciate their importance and make informed decisions about their use and maintenance.

About Semco - Established in 2006, Semco Infratech has secured itself as the number 1 lithium-ion battery assembling and testing solutions provider in the country. Settled in New Delhi, Semco gives turnkey solutions for lithium-ion battery assembling and precision testing with an emphasis on Research and development to foster imaginative, future-proof products for end users.

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