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  • Writer's pictureSemco Infratech

Battery Principles: Understanding the working module and structure of lithium-ion battery

The battery is a critical part of any device. The chemical reaction that occurs inside a battery ensures the flow of charges to meet the required demands of the electricity supply. The chemistry of a battery includes a set of components that are required in order to the transportation of ions and oxidize them to create a charge in the battery. Before understanding the working principle of lithium batteries, let's roughly understand the components of lithium batteries:

The components of lithium-ion batteries are as follows:

Positive electrode – Mostly known as anode, is part of the battery where negative anions are oxidized. The materials generally used in the anode are lithium manganate, lithium cobaltate, and Nickel cobalt lithium manganate material. Every application that runs on a Li-ion battery uses a different type of combination for instance in electric bicycles we use nickel cobalt manganate lithium which is generally known as ternary + a small amount of lithium manganate.

Separator – The simplest yet most complicated part of the battery is the separator. It is used to separate the anode from the cathode while the process of ion transport is being carried out in the cell.

The negative electrode – Mostly known as the cathode, is part of the cell from where the conventional current leaves. The active material in a cathode is graphite, or carbon similar to the graphite structure, and the conductive current collector uses an electrolytic copper foil with a thickness of 7-15 microns.

Organic electrolyte – It is a component of a battery made with earth-abundant molecules.

Battery shell – These shells can be divided into steel shell (square type rarely used), aluminum shell, nickel-plated iron shell (used in cylindrical batteries), aluminum plastic film (flexible packaging), etc., as well as the cap of the battery, which is also the positive and negative exit ends of the battery.

Second, the working principle of lithium battery

The following introduces the working principle of the lithium battery charging process, discharge process, and battery protection board three parts:

Lithium battery charging process

The positive electrode of the battery is generated by lithium ions. The generated lithium ions "jump" into the electrolyte from the positive electrode, crawl through the curved hole in the diaphragm through the electrolyte, move to the negative electrode, and combine with the electrons that have long been running to the negative electrode through the external circuits.

● The reaction on the positive pole is: LiCoO2== Charging == Li1-xCoO2+Xli++Xe (electron)

● The reaction on the negative pole is: 6C+XLi++Xe===== LixC6 In the process of charging, Li+ escapes from the positive LiCoO2, Enter the electrolyte, moves to the negative electrode under the action of the external electric field attached to the charger, and then enter the negative electrode composed of graphite or coke C in turn, forming a LiC compound at the negative electrode.

Lithium battery discharge process

When discharging, the electrons and Li+ act at the same time. The direction is the same but the path is different. The electrons run from the negative pole through the external circuit to the positive pole; the lithium-ion Li+ moves into the electrolyte from the negative pole, goes through the curved hole in the separator, and reaches the positive pole, combined with the electrons that have been running over for a long time. What we usually call battery capacity refers to discharge capacity.

Battery protection board

As the name implies, the battery protection board is mainly an integrated circuit board that protects rechargeable batteries (generally lithium batteries). The reason why lithium batteries (chargeable) need to be protected is that the material of the lithium battery itself determines that it cannot be overcharged, overcurrent, short-circuited, and ultra-high temperature charged and discharged. Therefore, lithium batteries always have a protective plate and a current insulator.


Several components are needed to process the electric supply in a battery. Some major components include the cathode, anode, and separator. While working on a battery few principle processes needs to be understood like charging and discharging of the battery, along with the battery safety which is ensured by the battery protection board.

About Semco - Established in 2006, Semco Infratech has secured itself as the number 1 lithium-ion battery assembling and testing solutions provider in the country. Settled in New Delhi, Semco gives turnkey solutions for lithium-ion battery assembling and precision testing with an emphasis on Research and development to foster imaginative, future-proof products for end users.

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